1: J Nat Prod 1997 Aug;60(8):775-8

Flavonoids as inhibitors or enhancers of the cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in L-929 tumor cells.

Habtemariam S

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, U.K.

The effects of some selected flavonoids on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced cytotoxicity in murine fibroblast L-929 cells were studied. All of the flavanones tested as well as a flavan, epicatechin, protected L-929 cells from TNF-induced cell death of the flavanones tested, hesperetin, isosakuranetin, and pinocembrin failed to modify TNF cytotoxicity, but the 3',4'-dihydroxyflavanones, eriodictyol and taxifolin, showed a protective effect. Eriodictyol was the most potent protective agent of all the flavonoids tested, while a 4'-hydroxyflavanone, naringenin, rather showed enhancement of TNF cytotoxicity. Of the flavones tested, chrysin and apigenin markedly augmented the cytotoxicity of TNF, while luteolin showed a weak protective effect. The magnitude of protection and potentiation by these flavonoids were concentration-dependent and these effects were not altered when the flavonoids were added as much as 2 h after TNF treatment.

PMID: 9287415, UI: 97433502


1: J Pharm Pharmacol 1998 May;50(5):561-4

Flavonoids reduce morphine withdrawal in-vitro.

Capasso A, Piacente S, Pizza C, Sorrentino L

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Salerno, Penta di Fisciano, Italy.

The effects of quercetin, flavone, catechin and chrysin on the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal contracture of the acute morphine-dependent guinea-pig ileum have been investigated in-vitro. After 4 min in-vitro exposure to morphine a strong contracture of guinea-pig isolated ileum was observed after the addition of naloxone. All the flavonoids, injected 10 min before morphine at concentrations between 10(-7) and 10(-5) M, were capable of blocking naloxone-induced contracture after exposure to morphine in a concentration-dependent fashion. IC50 values calculated for quercetin, flavone, catechin and chrysin were 2.7 x 10(-6), 7.3 x 10(-7), 8.5 x 10(-7) and 5.3 x 10(-6) M, respectively. These results suggest that flavonoids might play an important role in the control of morphine withdrawal.

PMID: 9643451, UI: 98305604


1: Science 1984 Sep 7;225(4666):1032-4

Inhibition of human estrogen synthetase (aromatase) by flavones.

Kellis JT Jr, Vickery LE

Several naturally occurring and synthetic flavones were found to inhibit the aromatization of androstenedione and testosterone to estrogens catalyzed by human placental and ovarian microsomes. These flavones include (in order of decreasing potency) 7,8-benzoflavone, chrysin, apigenin, flavone, flavanone, and quercetin; 5,6-benzoflavone was not inhibitory. 7,8-Benzoflavone and chrysin were potent competitive inhibitors and induced spectral changes in the aromatase cytochrome P-450 indicative of substrate displacement. Flavones may thus compete with steroids in their interaction with certain monooxygenases and thereby alter steroid hormone metabolism.

PMID: 6474163, UI: 84300283


1: Biochem Pharmacol 1990 Nov 15;40(10):2227-31

Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone), a naturally-occurring ligand for benzodiazepine receptors, with anticonvulsant properties.

Medina JH, Paladini AC, Wolfman C, Levi de Stein M, Calvo D, Diaz LE, Pena C

Instituto de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Medicina, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Chrysin (5,7-di-OH-flavone) was identified in Passiflora coerulea L., a plant used as a sedative in folkloric medicine. Chrysin was found to be a ligand for the benzodiazepine receptors, both central (Ki = 3 microM, competitive mechanism) and peripheral (Ki = 13 microM, mixed-type mechanism). Administered to mice by the intracerebroventricular route, chrysin was able to prevent the expression of tonic-clonic seizures induced by pentylenetertrazol. Ro 15-1788, a central benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, abolished this effect. In addition, all of the treated mice lose the normal righting reflex which suggests a myorelaxant action of the flavonoid. The presence in P. coerulea of benzodiazepine-like compounds was also confirmed.

PMID: 2173925, UI: 91058598


1: Arch Pharm Res 1994 Apr;17(2):71-5

Antimutagenic effect of plant flavonoids in the Salmonella assay system.

Choi JS, Park KY, Moon SH, Rhee SH, Young HS

Dept. of Food and Nutrition, National Fisheries University of Pusan, Korea.

The antimutagenic effects of 27 kinds of plant flavonoids on the mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine(MNNG) in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 were investigated. In the mixed applications of AFB1 (1 microgram/plate) with the flavonoids (300 micrograms/plate) in the presence of a mammalian metabolic activation system (S9 mix), chrysin, apigenin, luteolin and its glucoside, kaempferol, fisetin, morin, naringenin, hesperetin, persicogenin, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin showed the antimutagenic effect against AFB1 with more than 70% inhibition rate. A little or no antimutagenicities except flavone against MNNG (0.5 microgram/plate) were observed. For the antimutagenicity of the flavonoids on AFB1, the flavonoid structure that contains the free 5-, 7-hydroxyl group seemed to be essential. However, saturation of the 2,3-double bond or elimination of the 4-keto group did not affect the activity.

PMID: 10319134, UI: 99252692


1: Biochem Pharmacol 1984 May 1;33(9):1525-30

Modification of platelet function and arachidonic acid metabolism by bioflavonoids. Structure-activity relations.

Landolfi R, Mower RL, Steiner M

The mechanism of the antiaggregating activity of flavonoids was studied in vitro. The activity of fifteen different compounds was tested on platelet aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism. The effect of flavonoids on platelet adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) levels under basal conditions, as well as after stimulation by prostacyclin (PGI2), was also measured. The glycons of flavonoids in general and the flavanone derivatives that we tested did not affect platelet function. On the other hand, flavone, chrysin , apigenin and phloretin inhibited platelet aggregation by depressing the cyclooxygenase pathway. In addition, flavone, chrysin and apigenin reduced the platelet cyclic AMP response to PGI2. This effect was probably mediated by an inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Myricetin and quercetin, however, increased the PGI2-stimulated rise of platelet cyclic AMP. Both of these flavonoids inhibited primarily lipoxygenase activity. Modification of platelet cyclic AMP metabolism through inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity was found to be the probable mechanism of their antiaggregating effect.

PMID: 6329230, UI: 84231526


1: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 1993 Sep;46(3):381-8

Flavonoid inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity in human preadipocytes.

Campbell DR, Kurzer MS

Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA.

Eleven flavonoid compounds were compared with aminoglutethimide (AG), a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor, for their abilities to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity in a human preadipocyte cell culture system. Flavonoids exerting no effect on aromatase activity were catechin, daidzein, equol, genistein, beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), quercetin and rutin. The synthetic flavonoid, alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), was the most potent aromatase inhibitor, with an I50 value of 0.5 microM. Three naturally-occurring flavonoids, chrysin, flavone, and genistein 4'-methyl ether (Biochanin A) showed I50 values of 4.6, 68, and 113 microM, respectively, while AG showed an I50 value of 7.4 microM. Kinetic analyses showed that both AG and the flavonoids acted as competitive inhibitors of aromatase. The Ki values, indicating the effectiveness of inhibition, were 0.2, 2.4, 2.4, 22, and 49 microM, for ANF, AG, chrysin, flavone, and Biochanin A, respectively. Chrysin, the most potent of the naturally-occurring flavonoids, was similar in potency and effectiveness to AG, a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor used clinically in cases of estrogen-dependent carcinoma. These data suggest that flavonoid inhibition of peripheral aromatase activity may contribute to the observed cancer-preventive hormonal effects of plant-based diets.

PMID: 9831487, UI: 99047382


1: Environ Health Perspect 1998 Feb;106(2):85-92

Molecular basis of the inhibition of human aromatase (estrogen synthetase) by flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens: A site-directed mutagenesis study.

Kao YC, Zhou C, Sherman M, Laughton CA, Chen S

Division of Immunology, Beckman Research Institute of the City of Hope, Duarte, CA 91010, USA.

Flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens are plant chemicals and are known to be competitive inhibitors of cytochrome P450 aromatase with respect to the androgen substrate. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen; therefore, these plant chemicals are thought to be capable of modifying the estrogen level in women. In this study, the inhibition profiles of four flavones [chrysin (5, 7-dihydroxyflavone), 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone)], two isoflavones [genistein (4,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone) and biochanin A (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyisoflavone)], one flavanone [naringenin (4, 5,7-trihydroxyflavanone)], and one naphthoflavone (alpha-naphthoflavone) on the wild-type and six human aromatase mutants (I133Y, P308F, D309A, T310S, I395F, and I474Y) were determined. In combination with computer modeling, the binding characteristics and the structure requirement for flavone and isoflavone phytoestrogens to inhibit human aromatase were obtained. These compounds were found to bind to the active site of aromatase in an orientation in which rings A and C mimic rings D and C of the androgen substrate, respectively. This study also provides a molecular basis as to why isoflavones are significantly poorer inhibitors of aromatase than flavones.

PMID: 9435150, UI: 99289389


1: Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1997 Dec;58(4):887-91

Anxiolytic natural and synthetic flavonoid ligands of the central benzodiazepine receptor have no effect on memory tasks in rats.

Salgueiro JB, Ardenghi P, Dias M, Ferreira MB, Izquierdo I, Medina JH

Centro de Memoria, Departamento de Bioquimica, I.C.B.S., Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

The naturally occurring flavonoids, chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and apigenin (5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavone), and the synthetic compound, 6,3'-dinitroflavone have been recently reported to selectively bind with high affinity to the central benzodiazepine receptor, and to exert powerful anxiolytic and other benzodiazepine-like effects in rats. Their chemical analog, quercetin, shares none of these effects. In the present article we find that, in contrast to diazepam, chrysin, apigenin, and 6,3'-dinitroflavone have no amnestic effect on acquisition or retention of three different learning tasks (inhibitory avoidance, shuttle avoidance, and habituation to an open field), even when given at doses higher than those previously reported to be anxiolytic. Apigenin had a slight enhancing effect on training session performance and, when given posttraining, on test session retention, of crossing responses in the open field and hindered retention of inhibitory avoidance, and showed no anxiolytic action in an elevated plus maze. Unlike diazepam, none of these drugs had any analgesic effect in the tail-flick test. The data suggest that chrysin, apigenin, and 6,3'-dinitroflavoine, three flavonoids derivatives possessing anxioselective effects acting on central benzodiazepine receptors, may deserve clinical trials as anxiolytic agents.

PMID: 9408191, UI: 98070129


1: Arch Pharm Res 1999 Jun;22(3):309-12

Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids.

Jeong HJ, Shin YG, Kim IH, Pezzuto JM

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 60612, USA.

In searching for potent cancer chemopreventive agents from synthetic or natural products, 28 randomly selected flavonoids were screened for inhibitory effects against partially purified aromatase prepared from human placenta. Over 50% of the flavonoids significantly inhibited aromatase activity, with greatest activity being demonstrated with apigenin (IC50: 0.9 microg/mL), chrysin (IC50: 1.1 microg/mL), and hesperetin (IC50: 1.0 microg/mL).

PMID: 10403137, UI: 99329931


1: AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1996 Jan 1;12(1):39-46

Inhibition of HIV activation in latently infected cells by flavonoid compounds.

Critchfield JW, Butera ST, Folks TM

Retrovirus Diseases Branch, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia 30333, USA.

Acute HIV-1 infection of H9 and C8166 cultures has been shown to be suppressed by certain flavonoids, and evidence for inhibition of HIV-1 protease, integrase, and reverse transcriptase by flavonoids also exists. The present aim was to determine whether flavonoids inhibit HIV-1 activation in models of latent infection. By screening flavonoids from six different classes, three structurally related compounds (chrysin, acacetin, and apigenin) were identified that inhibited HIV expression in TNF-alpha-treated OM-10.1 cultures. The three compounds had favorable potencies against HIV activation in relation to their growth inhibitory effects (therapeutic index 5-10). Chrysin also inhibited HIV expression in response to PMA in OM-10.1 cells, in ACH-2 cells stimulated with either TNF-alpha or PMA, and in 8E5 cultures. Furthermore, return to viral latency in OM-10.1 cells previously exposed to TNF-alpha occurred over a shorter time interval when chrysin was added. The inhibition of HIV activation was not dependent on preincubation with flavonoids relative to TNF, and was characterized by a lack of HIV RNA accumulation by Northern analysis. Gel-shift experiments revealed that NF-kappa B activation after TNF-alpha treatment was not inhibited by these agents, suggesting that some other critical factor(s) needed for viral transcription was being affected. These findings indicate that flavonoids inhibit HIV-1 activation via a novel mechanism, and that these agents are potential candidates for therapeutic strategies aimed at maintaining a cellular state of HIV-1 latency.

PMID: 8825617, UI: 96423016


1: Steroids 1997 Apr;62(4):365-72

The estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of phytochemicals with the human estrogen receptor expressed in yeast.

Collins BM, McLachlan JA, Arnold SF

Tulane-Xavier Center for Bioenvironmental Research, Tulane University Medical Center, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

We have used the expression of the human estrogen receptor (hER) and two estrogen response elements linked to the lacZ gene in yeast (YES) to study the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of various phytochemicals. Coumestrol, alpha-zearalenol, or genistein could produce beta-galactosidase activity comparable to estradiol, but these required concentrations 100 to 1000-fold greater than estradiol. These compounds did not possess antiestrogenic activity. Narigenin, kaempferide, phloretin, biochanin A, flavone, or chrysin only partially induced beta-galactosidase activity in the YES at any concentration tested. When narigenin, kaempferide, or phloretin was given concurrently with estradiol, the estradiol-dependent beta-galactosidase activity was not inhibited by more than 50%. However, biochanin A, flavone, or chrysin could inhibit the activity of estradiol in a dose-response manner with IC50 values of 500 nM, 2 microM, and 10 microM, respectively. Combinations of biochanin A, chrysin, and flavone decreased estradiol-dependent beta-galactosidase activity in an additive fashion. Similar to the antiestrogens tamoxifen or ICI 182, 780, the antiestrogenic activity of these compounds with the exception of chrystin involved the disruption of hER dimerization, as demonstrated in the yeast two-hybrid system. Biochanin A, chrysin, or flavone were less effective in inhibiting the activity of an estrogenic polychlorinated biphenyl than they were inhibiting the activity of estradiol. Interestingly, this latter group of antiestrogenic phytocompounds did not inhibit the estrogenic activity of such phytochemicals as coumestrol or genistein. These results suggest that the antiestrogenic activity of biochanin A and flavone occurs by a mechanism similar to tamoxifen or ICI 182,780. Moreover, it seems that phytochemicals functioning as antiestrogens do not inhibit the activity of all estrogenic chemicals to the same extent. This suggests that conformational changes induced by different estrogens bound to the hER may regulate the antiestrogenic activity of a compound.

PMID: 9090797, UI: 97246198


1: Bioorg Med Chem Lett 1999 Mar 22;9(6):869-74

Synthesis and hypoglycemic effect of chrysin derivatives.

Shin JS, Kim KS, Kim MB, Jeong JH, Kim BK

College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Korea.

A series of 18 chrysin derivatives, prepared by alkylation and condensation, were fully characterized by NMR and other techniques and tested in vivo against the diabetes mellitus. Several modified compounds especially those with propyl, butyl, octyl and tolyl groups were found to have hypoglycemic effect on diabetec mice in spite of the fact that chrysin itself had inhibited insulin release by 40-60%. None of the test animals died at the maximum dose 500mg/kg and did not cause any significant change in general feature, water and food consumption, body weight and organ weight when we examined the acute oral toxicity of those compounds having significant hypoglycemic effect.

PMID: 10206552, UI: 99221393


1: Microbiologica 1990 Jul;13(3):207-13

Effects of propolis flavonoids on virus infectivity and replication.

Debiaggi M, Tateo F, Pagani L, Luini M, Romero E

Istituto di Microbiologia, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, Italy.

The effect of five propolis flavonoids on the infectivity and replication of some herpesvirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and rotavirus strains has been studied. Experiments were performed in vitro in cell cultures using the viral plaque reduction technique. The cytotoxicity of flavonoids, including chrysine, kaempferol, acacetin, galangin and quercetin, was evaluated on uninfected monolayers to determine their effect on cell growth and viability. Chrysine and kaempferol caused a concentration-dependent reduction of intracellular replication of herpes-virus strains when monolayers were infected and subsequently cultured in a drug-containing medium. However, virus infectivity was not significantly affected. Acacetin and galangin had no effect on either the infectivity or replication of any of the viruses studied. Quercetin reduced infectivity and intracellular replication, but only at the highest concentrations tested.

PMID: 2125682, UI: 91109590


1: J Nat Prod 1994 Jan;57(1):42-51

Anti-AIDS agents, 10. Acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, an anti-HIV principle from Chrysanthemum morifolium and a structure-activity correlation with some related flavonoids.

Hu CQ, Chen K, Shi Q, Kilkuskie RE, Cheng YC, Lee KH

Natural Products Laboratory, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill 27599.

An active anti-HIV principle, acacetin-7-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, has been isolated from Chrysanthemum morifolium. Seven additional flavonoids isolated from this plant, 13 known related flavonoids, and 14 synthetic flavonoids were also evaluated as inhibitors of HIV replication in H9 cells. A known flavone, chrysin, was found to be the most promising compound in this series. Flavonoids with hydroxy groups at C-5 and C-7 and with a C-2-C-3 double bond were more potent inhibitors of HIV growth. In general, the presence of substituents (hydroxyl and halogen) in the B-ring increased toxicity and/or decreased activity.

PMID: 8158164, UI: 94209934


1: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1999 Oct;63(10):1787-90

Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by flavonoids.

Nagao A, Seki M, Kobayashi H

National Food Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

Various dietary flavonoids were evaluated in vitro for their inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase, which has been implicated in oxidative injury to tissue by ischemia-reperfusion. Xanthine oxidase activity was determined by directly measuring uric acid formation by HPLC. The structure-activity relationship revealed that the planar flavones and flavonols with a 7-hydroxyl group such as chrysin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and isorhamnetin inhibited xanthine oxidase activity at low concentrations (IC50 values from 0.40 to 5.02 microM) in a mixed-type mode, while the nonplanar flavonoids, isoflavones and anthocyanidins were less inhibitory. These results suggest that certain flavonoids might suppress in vivo the formation of active oxygen species and urate by xanthine oxidase.

PMID: 10671036, UI: 20127172


1: Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994 Jan;47(1):1-4

Possible anxiolytic effects of chrysin, a central benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Passiflora coerulea.

Wolfman C, Viola H, Paladini A, Dajas F, Medina JH

Instituto de Biologia Celular, Facultad de Medicina, UBA, Argentina.

The pharmacological effects of 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin), a naturally occurring monoflavonoid that displaces [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the central benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors, were examined in mice. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, diazepam (DZ, 0.3-0.6 mg/kg) or chrysin (1 mg/kg) induced increases in the number of entries into the open arms and in the time spent on the open arms, consistent with an anxiolytic action of both compounds. The effects of chrysin on the elevated plus-maze was abolished by pretreatment with the specific BDZ receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788 (3 mg/kg). In the holeboard, diazepam (1 mg/kg) and chrysin (3 mg/kg) increased the time spent head-dipping. In contrast, high doses of DZ (6 mg/kg) but not of chrysin produced a decrease in the number of head dips and in the time spent head-dipping. In the horizontal wire test, diazepam (6 mg/kg) had a myorelaxant action. In contrast, chrysin (0.6-30 mg/kg) produced no effects in this test. These data suggest that chrysin possesses anxiolytic actions without inducing sedation and muscle relaxation. We postulate that this natural monoflavonoid is a partial agonist of the central BDZ receptors.

PMID: 7906886, UI: 94159642


1: J Endocrinol 1985 Oct;107(1):1-8

Effects of flavonoids on insulin secretion and 45Ca2+ handling in rat islets of Langerhans.

Hii CS, Howell SL

The effects of some flavonoids, a group of naturally occurring pigments one of which has been claimed to possess antidiabetic activities, on insulin release and 45Ca2+ handling have been studied in isolated rat islets of Langerhans. Insulin release was enhanced by approximately 44-70% when islets were exposed to either (-)epicatechin (0.8 mmol/l) or quercetin (0.01-0.1 mmol/l); others such as naringenin (0.1 mmol/l) and chrysin (0.08 mmol/l) inhibited hormone release by approximately 40-60%. These effects were observed only in the presence of 20 mmol glucose/l. Quercetin (0.01 mmol/l) and (-)epicatechin (0.8 mmol/l) both inhibited 45Ca2+ efflux in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca2+. In the presence of 20 mmol glucose/l both the short-term (5 min) and steady-state (30 min) uptake of 45Ca2+ were significantly increased by either quercetin or (-)epicatechin. These results suggest that the stimulatory compounds such as quercetin and (-)epicatechin may, at least in part, exert their effects on insulin release via changes in Ca2+ metabolism.

PMID: 3900267, UI: 86010058


1: Thyroid 1999 Apr;9(4):369-76

Growth inhibitory effects of flavonoids in human thyroid cancer cell lines.

Yin F, Giuliano AE, Van Herle AJ

Division of Endocrinology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90024, USA.

Previous studies have indicated that flavonoids exhibit antiproliferative properties on some hormone-dependent cancer cell lines, such as breast and prostate cancer. In the present study, the effects of some selected flavonoids, genistein, apigenin, luteolin, chrysin, kaempferol, and biochanin A on human thyroid carcinoma cell lines, UCLA NPA-87-1 (NPA) (papillary carcinoma), UCLA RO-82W-1 (WRO) (follicular carcinoma), and UCLA RO-81A-1 (ARO) (anaplastic carcinoma) have been examined. Among the flavonoids tested, apigenin and luteolin are the most potent inhibitors of these cell lines with IC50 (concentration at which cell proliferation was inhibited by 50%) values ranging from 21.7 microM to 32.1 microM. The cells were viable at these concentrations. Using NPA cells known to be estrogen receptor positive (ER+), it was shown that no significant [3H]-E2 displacement occurred with these flavonoids at the IC50 concentration. In WRO cells that are known to have an antiestrogen binding site (AEBS), biochanin A caused a stronger inhibitory growth effect (IC50 = 64.1 microM) than in NPA and ARO cells. In addition, it was observed that biochanin A has an appreciable binding affinity for the AEBS as indicated by the displacement of [3H]-tamoxifen from the WRO cells. In summary, flavonoids have potent antiproliferative activity in vitro against various human thyroid cancer cell lines. The inhibitory activity of certain flavonoid compounds may be mediated via the AEBS and/or type II EBS. The observation that ARO cells that lack both the AEBS and the ER are effectively inhibited by apigenin and luteolin suggest that other mechanisms of action are operative as well. The present study suggests that flavonoids may represent a new class of therapeutic agents in the management of thyroid cancer.

PMID: 10319943, UI: 99251661


1: Mutat Res 1998 Aug 7;416(1-2):85-92

Related Articles, Books, LinkOut

The effect of flavonoids on ofloxacin-induced mutagenicity in Euglena gracilis.

Krizkova L, Nagy M, Polonyi J, Ebringer L

Institute of Molecular and Subcellular Biology, Faculty of Science, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovak Republic.

The antimutagenicity of 14 naturally occurring flavonoids (20 mumol/l) on ofloxacin (43 mumol/l and 86 mumol/l)-induced bleaching (mutagenicity) was studied in Euglena gracilis. The flavonoids chrysin, techtochrysin, chrysin-5-methylether galangin, galangin-5-methylether, pinocembrin and pinobanksin possess considerable antimutagenic properties against ofloxacin-induced bleaching of E. gracilis. Apigenin and isalpinin had only weak antimutagenic potency. Pinobanksin-5-methylether and pinobanksin-3-acetate showed very weak or no antimutagenic effect. However, kempferol, quercetin-3-methylether and quercetin-3,3'-dimethylether showed co-mutagenic or no antimutagenic effect depending on the concentration of ofloxacin. Two possible modes of action of the flavonoids on ofloxacin-induced bleaching of E. gracilis are discussed.

PMID: 9725994, UI: 98394057


1: Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2000 May;24(4):561-77

Related Articles, Books

Influence of benzodiazepines on body weight and food intake in obese and lean Zucker rats.

Blasi C

Laboratoires de Recherches Metaboliques de la Faculte de Medicine, Universite de Geneve, Suisse.

[Medline record in process]

1. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which is functionally altered in obese (fa/fa) Zucker rats, plays an important role in controlling energy balance within the central nervous system. 2. GABA receptors seem to be involved in the dysfunction of the hypothalamic energy homeostasis-controlling mechanisms in these animals due to a genetically-induced defect of the leptin-neuropeptide Y system. 3. To shed further light on the possible role played by the GABA system in the pathogenesis of this rat model, two benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor agonists (diazepam and clonazepam) and one BDZ antagonist (flumazenil) were administered intraperitoneally in obese and lean Zucker rats. 4. Body weight gain was reduced by the BDZ agonists in both phenotypes, and one receptor-agonist (diazepam) lowered insulin concentration in obese rats. In GABA-antagonist-treated obese rats, the daily amount of body weight gain and food intake acquired an oscillatory rhythm similar to that of normal rodents. 5. By demonstrating the role of BDZ receptors, these findings may help clarify the pathophysiology of obesity and insulin resistance in fatty Zucker rats.

PMID: 10958151, UI: 20412329




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